|The User-Developer Convergence: Innovation and Software Systems Development in the Apache Project|
Three kind of references have been used in this thesis. The first is the traditional bibliographic references. Secondly, I have used material found on the World Wide Web. These are found together with the main bibliographic references. When referring to Web sources with reliable static archives, like the Internet Engineering Task Force's RFC archives or the back issue archives of on-line publications such as First Monday, I include a link to the Web page in question. Other Web references, like material found on personal Web pages and project pages I include an access date to indicate that the page may have changed since I accessed it. In the main body of the text, when referring direct quotations from Web source, the page number included is only an approximation of the location. The page number included is the number of PageDown I have pressed to arrive at the quotation. This approximation should suffice as on-line quotations are easy to find using the browser's search command.
The third kind of reference used is references to e-mails found in the new-httpd mailing list archives. For traceability I have included these as links to the Hypermail archives I have set up while working on this thesis. Unlike the two other bibliographic reference types, the e-mail references are collected under a separate heading towards the end of this chapter. The messages are sequentially ordered by date instead of by author name. This has been done to illustrate the flow of discussions on the mailing list.
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Tim Berners-Lee, Weaving the Web: The Past, Present and Future of the World Wide Web by its Inventor, Orion Business Books, London, 1999.
Nikolai Bezroukov, "Open Source Software Development as a Special Kind Type of Academic Research (Critique of Vulgar Raymondism)", First Monday, Volume 4 Issue 10, 1999.
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Christopher B Browne, "Linux and Decentralized Development", First Monday, Volume 3 Issue 3, 1998.
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Lyman Chapin, The Internet Standards Process, 1993.
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Claudio Ciborra, "The Grassroots of IT and Strategy", Strategic Information Systems: The European Perspective, Edited by Claudio Ciborra and T Jelassi, John Wiley & Sons Ltd., Chichester, 1994, pp. 3-24.
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Bo Dahlbom and Lars Mathiasen, Computers in Context: The Philosophy and Practice of System Design, NCC Blackwell, Cambridge, 1998.
Thomas H. Davenport and Lawrence Prusak, Working Knowledge: How Organizations Manage What they Know, Harvard Business School Press, Boston, 1998.
Edited by Chris DiBona, Sam Ockman and Mark Stone, Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution, O'Reilly & Associates, Inc, Sebastopol, 1999.
Hubert L. Dreyfus, What Computers Still Can't Do: A Critique of Artifical Intelligence, The MIT Press, Cambridge, 1999.
Pelle Ehn, "Scandinavian Design: On Participation and Skill", Participatory Design: Principles and Practices, Edited by Douglas Schuler and Aki Namioka, Lawrence Erlbaum, Ltd., Hillsdale, 1993, pp. 41-78.
Christiane Floyd, "Outline of a Paradigm Change in Software Engineering", Computers and Democracy: A Scandinavian Challenge, Edited by Gro Bjerknes, Pelle Ehn and Morten Kyng, Avebury, 1987, pp. 193-210.
Martin Fowler, UML Distilled: A Brief Guide to the Standard Object Modelling Language, Second Edition, Addison Wesley, Upper Saddle River, 1999.
Andrew L Friedman, Computer Systems Development: History, Organization and Implementation, John Wiley & Sons Ltd., Chichester, 1989.
H G Gadamer, "The Historicity of Understanding", Critical Sociology: Selected Readings, Edited by P Connerton, Penguin, New York, 1976, pp. 117-133.
Robert Galliers, "Choosing information systems research approaches", Information systems research: Issues, methods and practical guidelines, Edited by Robert Galliers, NCC Blackwell, Cambridge, 1992, pp. 144-162.
Rishab Ayer Gosh, "Cooking Pot Markets: An Economic Model for the Trade in Free Gods and Services on the Internet", First Monday, Volume 3 Issue 3, 1998.
Gisle Hannemyr, "The Art and Craft of Hacking", Scandinavian Journal of Information Systems, Volume 10 Issue 1&2, 1998, pp. 255-262.
Gisle Hannemyr, "Technology and Pleasure: Considering Hacking Constructive", First Monday, Volume 4 Issue 2, 1999.
Rob Hartill and Roy Fielding, Apache voting rules and guidelines (accessed November 13 2002), 1995.
Rudy Hirschheim and Heinz K. Klein, "Four Paradigms of Information Systems Development", Communications of the ACM, Association for Computing Machinery, New York, Volume 32 Issue 10, 1989, pp. 1199-1216.
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Tove Håpnes, "Not in Their Machines: How Hackers Transform Computers into Subcultural Artefacts", Making Technology Our Own?: Domesticating Technology into Everyday Life, Edited by Merete Lie and Knut H. Sørensen, 1996, pp. 121-150.
Robert Kanigel, The One Best Way: Fredrick Winslow Taylor and the Enigma of Efficiency, Little, Brown and Company, London, 1997.
Heinz H. Klein and Michael D. Myers, "A Set of Principles for Conducting and Evaluating Iterpretive Field Studies in Information Systems", MIS Quarterly, MIS Quarterly, Volume 23 Issue 1, 1999, pp. 67-94.
Thomas S. Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Third Edition, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1996.
Joseph Licklider, "Man-Computer Symbiosis", IRE Transactions on Human Factors in Electronics, Volume 1 Issue 1, 1960, pp. 4-11.
Marshall Kirk McKusick, "Twenty Years of Berkeley Unix; From AT&T-owned to Freely Distributable", Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution, Edited by Chris DiBona, Sam Ockman and Mark Stone, O'Reilly & Associates, Inc, Sebastopol, 1999, pp. 31-46.
Steven E Miller, "Political Implications of Participatory Design", PCD'92: Proceedings of the Participatory Design Conference, Edited by M J Muller, S Kuhn and J.A. Meskill, Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility, Palo Alto, 1992, pp. 93-100.
Eric Monteiro, "Scaling Information Infrastructure: The Case of Next-Generation IP on the Internet", The Information Society, Volume 14 Issue 3, 1998, pp. 229-245.
Eric Monteiro and Vidar Hepsøe, "Infrastructure Strategy Formation: Seize the Day at Statoil", From Control to Drift, Edited by Claudio Ciborra, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1998, pp. 148-171.
Jae Yun Moon and Lee Sproull, "Essence of Distributed Work: The Case of the Linux Kernel", First Monday, Volume 5 Issue 11, 2000.
Peter Naur, "Programming as Theory Building", Agile Software Development, Addison-Wesley, Reading, 2002, pp. 227-240.
Ikujiro Nonaka and Hirotaka Takeuchi, The Knowledge-Creating Company: How Japanese Companies Create the Dynamics of Innovation, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1995.
Ikujiro Nonaka and Hirotaka Takeuchi, "A Theory of the Firm's Knowledge-Creation Dynamics", The Dynamic Firm: The Role of Technology, Strategy, Organization, and Regions, Edited by Alfred D. Chandler, Peter Hagström, Örjan Sölvell, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1998, pp. 214-241.
Wanda J. Orlikowski, "Learning from Notes: Organizational Issues in Groupware Implementation", CSCW '92, 1992, p. 362-369.
Julian E. Orr, Talking About Machines: An Ethnography of a Modern Job, ILR Press/Cornell University Press, Ithaca, 1996.
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Jon Postel and John Reynolds, ARPA-Internet Protocol Policy, 1984.
Roger S. Pressman, Software Engineering: A Practitioner's Approach, Third edition, European Adaption, Edited by Darrel Ince, McGraw-Hill Book Company Europe, London, 1994.
Edited by Eric S. Raymond, The Jargon File.
Eric S. Raymond, "A Brief History of Hackerdom", Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution, Edited by Chris DiBona, Sam Ockman and Mark Stone, O'Reilly & Associates, Inc, Sebastopol, 1999, pp. 19-30.
Eric S. Raymond, The Cathedral & the Bazaar: Musings on Linux and Open Source by an Accidental Revolutionary, O'Reilly & Associates, Inc, Sebastopol, 1999.
Dennis Ritchie, "The Evolution of the Unix Time-sharing System", AT&Bell Laboratories Technical Journal, Volume 63 Issue 6 Part 2, 1984, pp. 1577-1593.
Daniel Robey and M. Lynne Markus, "Rituals in Information System Design", MIS Quarterly, MIS Quarterly, Volume 8 Issue 8, 1985, pp. 5-13.
Richard Stallman, Original announcement of the GNU project (accessed November 13 2002), 1983.
Edited by Richard Stallman, 1984, What is Copyleft? (accessed November 13 2002).
W. Richard Stevens, Unix Network Programming Volume 1: Networking APIs: Sockets and XTI, Second Edition, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, 1998.
Lucy Suchman, Plans and Situated Actions: The Problem of Human Machine Communication, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1987.
Linus Torvalds, Initial Linux announcement, 1992.
Vinod Valloppilli and Josh Cohen, The Halloween Documents: Confidential Internal Memorandum on Microsoft's Strategy against Linux and Open Source (accessed November 13 2002), 1998.
Joseph Weizenbaum, Computer Power and Human Reason: From Judgment to Calculation, Penguin Books, London, 1976.
Robert Young, Under the Radar: How Red Hat Changed the Software Business—and Took Microsoft by Surprise, Coriolis, Sandsdale, 1999.
Robert Thau, February 28 1995, Re: Informing NCSA, archive of the list.
Robert Thau, March 09 1995, Re: lights, cameras, action.
Randy Terbush, March 10 1995, Multi-homed server support.
Cliff Skolnick, March 12 1995, Re: BSDI compilation of apache .001.
Rob Hartill, March 14 1995, non-forking again.
Cliff Skolnick, March 14 1995, Re: non-forking again.
Robert Thau, March 14 1995, Re: non-forking again.
Rob McCool, March 14 1995, Re: non-forking again.
Cliff Skolnick, March 15 1995, Process (please read).
Robert Thau, March 15 1995, Re: Process (please read).
Rob Hartill, March 15 1995, patch list vote.
Brandon Long, March 16 1995, Re: non-forking again.
Rob Hartill, March 16 1995, Re: non-forking again (NCSA 1.4 approach).
Rob McCool, March 17 1995, Re: non-forking again (NCSA 1.4 approach).
Rob Hartill, March 17 1995, Re: non-forking again (NCSA 1.4 approach).
Rob Hartill, March 19 1995, apache-0.2 on hyperreal.
Rob Hartill, March 21 1995, Re: vote counting..
Randy Terbush, April 01 1995, Multi-homed.
Cliff Skolnick, April 01 1995, Re: Multi-homed.
Randy Terbush, April 06 1995, Multi-homed support.
Brian Behlendorf, April 07 1995, XBITHACK busted.
Randy Terbush, April 07 1995, Virtual Hosts patch.
Rob Hartill, April 08 1995, votes.
Randy Terbush, April 08 1995, Re: votes.
Brian Behlendorf, April 08 1995, Re: votes.
David Robinson, April 09 1995, Re: Virtual Hosts patch.
Cliff Skolnick, April 09 1995, Re: Virtual Hosts patch.
Robert Thau, April 09 1995, Re: Virtual Hosts patch.
Rob Hartill, April 09 1995, NCSA non-forking model doesn't fix the problem.
Robert Thau, April 12 1995, Issues for a beta release....
Brian Behlendorf, April 12 1995, Re: Issues for a beta release....
Brandon Long, April 12 1995, Re: Issues for a beta release....
Beth Frank, April 12 1995, Re: Issues for a beta release... (NCSA PLEASE READ).
Cliff Skolnick, April 26 1995, virtual hosts again.
Andrew Wilson, April 26 1995, Re: virtual hosts again.
Robert Thau, May 05 1995, Arena bugfix still needed.
Rob Hartill, May 11 1995, Re: 0.6.2 must go.
Rob Hartill, May 29 1995, for_apache_0.7.
Brian Behlendorf, June 06 1995, 0.7.1 compile problem.
Mark Cox, June 07 1995, 0.7.1 problems.
Ryan Watkins, June 08 1995, dead children left and right.
Robert Thau, June 13 1995, My garage poject....
Rob Hartill, June 16 1995, update.
Rob Hartill, June 17 1995, update ii.
Brian Behlendorf, June 20 1995, leaking fd's.
David Robinson, June 26 1995, Apache 0.7: too many processes.
Randy Terbush, June 29 1995, Shambhala.
Randy Terbush, June 30 1995, Re: Shambhala.
Brian Behlendorf, June 30 1995, Re: Shambhala.
Rob Hartill, June 30 1995, Re: Shambhala.
Rob Hartill, June 30 1995, Re: Shambhala.
Rob Hartill, August 28 1995, what bugs are there to squash.
Robert Thau, August 31 1995, Re: Vote change....
Rob Hartill, October 02 1995, 2:0.
Rob Hartill, October 05 1995, 1.0 timetable still up.
Roy Fielding, October 15 1995, Re: Operating System Independence.
Ben Laurie, October 16 1995, SSL/Apache.
Robert Thau, October 17 1995, Apache 0.8.15 on hyeperreal....
Rob Hartill, October 18 1995, more preparation for 1.0.
Robert Thau, October 24 1995, Re: 1.oh.
Rob Hartill, October 26 1995, FYI.. (fwd).
Robert Thau, November 05 1995, New 0.8.16 on hyperreal.
Rob Hartill, November 14 1995, 1.0.
Randy Terbush, November 25 1995, 1.0 Binaries.