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Keith Downing's Main Publications


Artificial Life


Downing, K. (2012). Heterochronous Neural Baldwinism. Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on the Simulation and Synthesis of Living Systems (ALife 13), , East Lansing, MI, pp. 37-44. pdf

Downing, K. (2010). The Baldwin Effect in Developing Neural Networks, Proceedings of the 12th Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference (GECCO-2010), , Portland, Oregon, pp. 555-562. pdf ** Best-Paper Nomination

Downing, K. (2009). Computational explorations of the Baldwin Effect, Proceedings of the First Norwegian Artificial Intelligence Symposium , Trondheim, Norway, pp. 41-52. pdf ** Best-Paper Award Winner

Downing, K. (2004). Development and the Baldwin Effect. Artificial Life , 10(1), pp. 39-64. pdf

Downing, K. (2004). Artificial life and natural intelligence. Proceedings of the 6th Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference (GECCO-2004), , Seattle, WA., pp. 81-92. pdf

Downing, K. (2003). Gaia in the Machine: The Artificial Life Approach. Scientists Debate Gaia: The Next Century , MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Downing, K. (2003). Developmental models for emergent computation. Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Evolvable Systems (ICES-2003) , Trondheim, Norway., pp. 105-116.

Downing, K. (2002). The Simulated Emergence of Distributed Environmental Control in Evolving Microcosms. Artificial Life , 6(2), pp. 123-153. pdf

Downing, K. (2001) Modular Designer Chemistries for Artificial Life. Proceedings of the 3nd Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference (GECCO-2001) , San Francisco, California, pp. 845-852.

Downing, K. (2000) Exploring Gaia theory: Artificial life on a planetary scale. Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Artificial Life, Portland, Oregon, pp. 90-99.

Downing, K. & Zvirinsky, P. (1999) The Simulated Evolution of Biochemical guilds: Reconciling Gaia Theory and Natural Selection. Artificial Life 5(4), pp. 291-318 pdf

Downing, K. (1997) EUZONE: Simulating the Evolution of Aquatic Ecosystems. Artificial Life, vol 3(4), pp. 307-333.


Computational Neuroscience


Downing, K. (2012). Neural Predictive Mechanisms and their Role in Cognitive Incrementalism. New Ideas in Psychology , to appear. pdf

Downing, K. (2009). Predictive models in the brain Connection Science , 21(1), pp. 39-74. pdf

Downing, K. (2007). Neuroscientific Implications for Situated and Embodied Artificial Intelligence Connection Science , 19(1), pp. 75-104. pdf

Downing, K. (2007). Supplementing Evolutionary Developmental Systems with Abstract Models of Neurogenesis Proceedings of the 9th Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference (GECCO-2007), , London, England, Pp. 990-996. pdf

Downing, K. (2005). The Predictive Basis of Situated and Embodied Artificial Intelligence. Proceedings of the 7th Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference (GECCO-2005), , Washington, D.C.,pp. 43-50 pdf


Evolutionary Computation


Downing, K. (2005). Tantrix: A minute to learn, 100 (genetic algorithm) generations to master. Genetic Programming & Evolvable Machines, 6(4), pp. 381-406. pdf

Downing, K. (2001). Reinforced Genetic Programming. Genetic Programming & Evolvable Machines, 2(3), pp. 259-288. pdf

Downing, K. (2001) Adaptive Genetic Programs via Reinforcement Learning. Proceedings of the 3nd Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference (GECCO-2001) , San Francisco, California.

Downing, K. (1998) Using evolutionary computational techniques in environmental modelling. Environmental Modelling & Software, Elsevier Publishers. Vol. 13, pp. 519-528.

Downing, K. (1998), Combining genetic programming and genetic algorithms for ecological simulation. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Genetic Programming, Madison, Wisconsin.

Downing, K. (1997) The emergence of insect protrandry: a "natural" evolutionary computation application. Proceedings of the 4th IEEE International Conference on Evolutionary Computation, Indianapolis, Indiana.

Downing, K. (1997) The emergence of emergence distributions: using genetic algorithms to test biological theories. Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Genetic Algorithms, East Lansing, Michigan.


Good Old-Fashioned Artificial Intelligence (GOFAI)


Downing, K. (1993) Physiological applications of consistency-based diagnosis. Artificial Intelligence in Medicine Journal. vol 5, pp. 65-82.

Downing, K. (1992). Consistency-based diagnosis in physiological domains. Proceedings of the 10th National Conference on Artificial Intelligence, pp. 558-563.

Downing, K. (1992). Analyzing genetic regulatory systems via focused envisionment. Proceedings of the 6th Annual Qualitative Physics Workshop, Edinburgh, Scotland.

Downing, K. (1992) A qualitative teleological approach to cardiovascular physiology. Recent Advances in Qualitative Physics, (P. Struss and B. Faltings eds.), MIT Press.

Downing, K. Fickas, S. (1991) A qualitative modeling tool for specification criticism. Conceptual Modelling, Databases, and CASE: An integrated view of information systems development (ed. Peri Loucopoulos), Ablex Publishers.


Downing, K. (1990) The qualitative criticism of circulatory models via bipartite teleological analysis. Artificial Intelligence in Medicine Journal, vol. 2, pp. 149-171.

Downing, K. (1990). The use of teleology in the qualitative evaluation and explanation of circulatory systems. Doctoral Thesis, Tech report # 90-13, The University of Oregon.

Downing, K. and J. Shrager (1988) Causes to clauses: managing assumptions in qualitative medical diagnosis. International Journal of AI in Engineering, vol. 3(4), pp. 192-199.

Downing, K. (1987). Diagnostic improvement through qualitative sensitivity analysis and aggregation. Proceedings of the 6th National Conference on Artificial Intelligence, pp. 789-793.


Environmental Modelling


Downing, K. and M. Reed (1996) Object-oriented migration modelling for biological impact assessment. Ecological Modelling, Elsevier Publishers, vol 93, pp. 203-219.

Downing, K. (1996) . A data-driven, object-oriented approach to migration modelling. Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing, Kohala Coast, Hawaii.

Rye, H., K. Downing and M. Reed (1995). Modelling the release of produced water near the Heidrun platform with the MUDMAP model. IKU report no. 42.2181.00/01/95, Trondheim, Norway

Downing, K. and M. Reed (1995). User's manual for The Response Technologies Database (RTDB), IKU report no. 95-008, Trondheim, Norway.

Downing, K., M. Reed and D. French (1994). Biological effects of potential oil spills at the ice edge in the Barents sea. IKU report no. 43.2171.00/01/94, Trondheim, Norway

Downing, K. (1994). Modellering av utslipp av boreslam/kaks i området rundt Brage platformen., IKU report no. 42.4003.00/03/94, Trondheim, Norway.

Slagstad, D. and K. Downing (1993) The effects of phytoplankton growth upon vertical carbon transport in the Greenland sea, SINTEF technical report.

Downing, K. and H. Backer (1993). User's manual for the HOPE procedure- handling parser, SINTEF Automatic Control report no. 93-76-K, Trondheim, Norway.